Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
Everyday activities like eating, dressing, using the toilet, bathing, getting in and out of bed, and moving around. Doctors or therapists measure a child's ability to do ADLs without help to determine their need for assistive devices (tools) and other aids.
This is important for children who struggle with learning—whether in reading, writing, math, or another subject. AT can help these kids thrive in school and in life by enabling them to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing. This can help grow their confidence and independence.
Adaptive physical education
Right or suitable for a child's age or age group.
A test or exam that collects information about a person's health or development. The results of an assessment can determine if a child is eligible for certain programs, services, or treatments.
A broad range of residential care services for people who need assistance for day-to-day activities, but do not require nursing staff. For instance, assisted living might be appropriate for patients with mid-stage Alzheimer’s’ or dementia, or other mental disabilities that mean it is unsafe for them to live without support. Typically assisted living will cost less than a nursing home.
Assistive Technology (AT) is any device, software, or equipment that helps people work around challenges so they can learn, communicate, and function better. A wheelchair is an example of AT. So is software that reads aloud text from a computer. Or a keyboard for someone struggling with handwriting.
People with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviours (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active. Although ADHD can’t be cured, it can be successfully managed and some symptoms may improve as the child ages.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
Methods of communicating that don't rely on speaking for those who have trouble using spoken language.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
The autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neuro-behavioural syndromes characterized by major impairments in basic social relationships, abnormal language development, limited or non existent imagination and extremely rigid patterns of behaviour. The term “spectrum” implies a range of severity from mild, allowing close to normal functions in many areas, to the most severe in which social function appears to be impossible, but there always deficits in the “core triad” of socialization, communication and imagination, and restricted behaviours. There is no single cause for these disorders, although a genetic influence is most frequently found. The disorders result from abnormal brain development.
Cerebral Palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture causing activity limitation that are attributed to non- progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, cognition, perception, communication, behaviour, by epilepsy and by secondary musculo-skeletal problems.
Children with special needs (CSN)
A strategy within community development for the rehabilitation, equalisation of opportunities and social integration of all people with disabilities (UN definition).
Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behaviour areas. These conditions begin during the developmental period, may impact day-to-day functioning, and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime.
The process of identifying a disease, condition, or injury from its signs and symptoms. A health history, physical exam, and tests, such as blood tests, imaging tests, and biopsies, may be used to help make a diagnosis.
Early childhood special education (ECSE)
Early intervention services
Functional life skills
Global developmental delay
A person is said to have hearing loss if they are not able to hear as well as someone with normal hearing, meaning hearing thresholds of 20 dB or better in both ears. It can be mild, moderate, moderately severe, severe or profound, and can affect one or both ears. Major causes of hearing loss include congenital or early onset childhood hearing loss, chronic middle ear infections, noise-induced hearing loss, age-related hearing loss, and ototoxic drugs that damage the inner ear.
Home-Based Intervention is a non- centre- based model focusing on empowering family members in active participation for providing intervention activities for the child in the home setting.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention. Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Mental health disorder
Neuromuscular disorders include a wide-range of diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system, which consists of all the motor and sensory nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. Progressive muscle weakness is the predominant condition of these disorders
Response to intervention (Rt)
Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act
Spasticity is a motor disorder characterised by muscle hypertonia characterised by an abnormal and increased response to rapid stretch, increased on voluntary effort and movement and occurring in disorganised fashion both in agonists and antagonists of an intended motor act. Along with increased deep tendon reflexes and upgoing plantar responses spasticity is part of the clinical complex indicating an “upper motor neurone lesion” or insult to the motor cortex.
special education services
Specific learning disorder
(also referred to as Learning Disability or Learning Disorder) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins during school age. It refers to ongoing problems in one of three areas, reading, writing and math, which are foundational to one’s ability to learn
Speech input or speech recognition
Speech - language therapy
Universal design for learning
The functional limitation of the eye or eyes or the vision system.